Friday, May 22, 2020

Fracking - Legal Consequences and Emissions into the Atmosphere Free Essay Example, 2750 words

It may be argued that unlimited fracking only holds negative consequences on the economy of the United States. However, to some extent, unlimited fracking has beneficial to the economy of the United States. The supporters of the fracking process have argued that economically, it provides thousands of jobs and especially to the economically depressed regions. For example, fracking has already provided jobs for many people in Southern Tier, which is a region along the northern border of Pennsylvania. The state of Ohio has also been reported to have the potential to create many jobs from fracking in the near future (Lydersen midwestenergynews. com). The United States natural gas reserves have been increased to 75% by fracking and this is advantageous to the economy (Pierce 2-3). This will increase manufacturing activity by reducing the cost of energy. It will also boost the economy as the costs of transportation will be reduced since heavy trucks, construction equipment and trains will be converted from expensive petroleum consuming machinery to machinery using cheaper natural gas. Fracking has also boosted the economy as the costs of paying for natural gas by the consumers are minimal (Pierce 5). The chemicals used during the fracking process have been exempted from the federal disclosure laws. We will write a custom essay sample on Fracking - Legal Consequences and Emissions into the Atmosphere or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Over the years, Britain has been seen to copy almost everything from America and recently, they have been eyeing the energy revolution in America that has come with fracking.

Friday, May 8, 2020

The Plague Of The Black Death - 1797 Words

â€Å"Ring around the rosy, a pocketful of posies. Ashes, ashes. We all fall down.† Many children sing this popular nursery rhyme around the globe; the origins of this seemingly innocent poem, however, derived itself in the thirteenth century. This tune originated during the time of a calamitous pandemic that struck the Eurasian continent. Commonly known as the Black Death, the plague is one of the most disastrous events in Europe’s natural history. England underwent serious modifications concerning it politically, socially, and economically as a result of the contagion. The Black Death, a plague that devastated Medieval England from 1347 to 1351, tremendously modified the Middle Ages; the pandemic contains a complex history that drastically altered England’s economy and people’s religious views. To start off, the first wave of the Black Death began in 1347; it reached England in September 1348. Historians believe the plague originated in Asia and spread to the Western Europe on trade routes. The first known records of the plague arose in Mongolia. Legends detail the Mongols spreading the pestilence during battle. When Mongolian soldiers first began falling ill, the leaders would â€Å"catapult the bodies of the infected into the depths of the enemy forces† (The Plague DVD). This legend is the first recorded instance of biological warfare. The plague progressed from Mongolia, to Caffa on the Crimean Peninsula, and finally to Sicily, Italy. The bubonic outbreak developed andShow MoreRelatedDeath by the Black Plague1017 Words   |  4 Pages The plague was the most devastating pandemic in human history, killing around 80-200 million people mostly throughout Europe, leaving most people back then wondering how they and others got sick and died. â€Å"Evidence available from rural continental Europe suggests a slow spread of human mortality across trade and travel routes, patterns consistent† (Carmichael 3), until after m ultiple inventions such as printing, word spread of this murderer, preventing more deaths and to treat those affected. ThisRead MoreBlack Death : The Black Plague1048 Words   |  5 Pagesbody: without employment, is a disease- the rest of the soul is a Plague, a hell itself† (Smiles, Samuel). The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague, came to existence in the Fourteenth Century. It was transferred from Asia in the late 1340s and caused a mass eruption in Europe. It was a very dark time period of history, which changed the way people viewed religion, fellow citizens, and life. In the 1300s, the century of the Plague, there were many poor conditions. One example was the home itselfRead MoreThe Black Death Plague795 Words   |  3 PagesThe Black Death is one of the worst disease in ancient history. It was an epidemic that killed millions of people between 1349-1351.Many people suffered from lack of care and lack of remedy, also it became difficult to find a medical person to diagnose such a horrible disease. Boccaccio, Tura and Venette describe the physical and social effect of Europe when the Plague had begun. In this selection, they describe how people respond and changed their behaviors .People were so scared from Plague thereforeRead MoreThe Plague Of The Black Death1798 Words   |  8 Pagesoutbreaks of the Black Death pandemic in the world. In the history the Black Plague is also called as the Black Death or Bubonic Plague. This research paper will mainly cover the European outbreak of the 14th century as it is considered to be the era of the worst time of the Black Death period. Many historians would agree that the events of 1300s led to dramatic changes affecting every European country in all the aspects. Creating economic, social, religious, and medical issues, the Black Death caused renovationRead MoreThe Plague Of The Black Death1484 Words   |  6 Pagestriggered not by humans, but by plagues. Plagues, defined as an epidemic with an amazingly high mortality rate according to the Merriam Webster dictionary, have been recorded throughout history, from the Plague of Justinian in Rome, to the Modern Plague of China (CDC). To the common man, all s/he sees is, the plague arrives, kills tens of millions of people, and then disappears into the night. In reality, the plague does not disappear quietly. The outbreak of a plague leaves a lasting legacyRead MoreBlack Death : The Black Plague768 Words   |  4 PagesThe Black Plague is known as the most fatal disease in the worlds history! The disease killed nearly one-third of Europe’s population in the fourteenth century. The Black Plague is also known as the Black Death and was transmitted to humans by rodents such as rats and spread due to extremely unsanitary living conditions. European cities such as Paris and London were most devastatingly affected by the Black Plague The Black Plague is transmitted from fleas to rodents such as rats or mice to humansRead MoreThe Black Death Of The Plague1638 Words   |  7 Pageshave crawled across the globe was called the Black Death. The first known case of The Plague was reported in China in 224 B.C. although this is not the period in time when it would become its most dangerous. It is believed that because China was such an important trade center at the time, diseased animals and their infected fleas were unknowingly transported along with goods via The Silk Road to Western Europe and Asia. Centuries later, the Black Plague would rear its head and swallow nearly halfRead MoreBlack Death And The Black Plague1234 Words   |  5 PagesThe Black Death, also known as the Black Plague, was one of the most deadliest diseases of all time. This disease came to Europe around 1347 C.E, by merchants from East Asia. The Black Plague then spread all across Europe, and killed over 25,000,000 people. The Black Death had its effect on many things. The peasant and noble differentiation was realized to be bogus, the belief in religious authorities came under question, and poor people actually benefited from the Black Death. After the epidemicRead MoreThe Plague Of The Black Death1035 Words   |  5 Pagesbegin with the most iconic epidemic, The Black Death. It will then discuss some of similar epidemics that have followed after and different treatments. This paper will show the progression of medicine and health around the world and the advancements in technology that have increased the lives of many individuals. The Black Death: The Black Death also known as the bubonic plague is considered a turning point in the development of medicine and science. This plague first occurred in China during the earlyRead MoreBlack Death : The Black Plague1876 Words   |  8 PagesThe Black Plague Sickness times a thousand equals the Black Death. In our world, many disasters have occurred, causing terrible damage emotionally, physically, and mentally. However, I believe that the Black Death is the worst disaster to have occurred throughout our world’s history. It all started in 1348, when trading ships from different countries around Europe settled at the port of Messina, Sicily. Once the ship dropped their anchor many of their sailors were found dead, and the few surviving

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effects Of Hydration Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

Blood force per unit area, or the sum of force exerted on our arterias as blood is pumped through them, is frequently measured to estimate an person ‘s general province of wellness ( James 2010 ) . Age, weight, dietetic wonts, emotional conditions, and general fittingness all contribute to arterial blood force per unit area ( Weedman and Sokoloski 2009 ) . It has been confirmed by recent surveies that environmental factors, like quicksilver exposure, can act upon an addition in blood force per unit area over clip ( Valera et al 2009 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects Of Hydration Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now About tierce of grownups worldwide suffer from high blood pressure, or high blood force per unit area ( Castaneda-Bueno and Gamba 2010 ) . Using a factor of our ain, the lab pupils conducted an experiment to prove the association between desiccation and blood force per unit area. I hypothesized that desiccation had a direct relationship with high blood force per unit area and bosom rate ; that is, the more dehydrated an person, the higher their blood force per unit area and bosom rate would be. With increased hydration, blood force per unit area and bosom rates would diminish to endorse to basal rates. The significance of this peculiar analysis is to prove whether hydration degrees in an single influences their blood force per unit area and/or bosom rates. A similar experiment has been performed with hydration and blood force per unit area, and the consequences show that desiccation in babies may take to future high blood force per unit area in grownups ( Smith et al 2006 ) . MATERIALS AND METHODS To run our experiment, we used an instrument called a â€Å" sphygmomanometer † to mensurate our arterial blood force per unit area. The group of topics dwelling of 26 pupils conducted three basal readings, before devouring H2O, at a somewhat dehydrated province. After two hours, our desiccation degrees were higher. Using our three basal readings we antecedently collected for control variables, we instantly began imbibing room-temperature H2O. I consumed about 16 ounces before taking the first of five blood force per unit area measurings, each done three proceedingss apart, for a corporate 12 proceedingss of appraising. Blood force per unit area, in this instance, would be the dependent variable, whereas the sum of H2O consumed ( hydration degree ) would be the independent variable. After carry oning the experiment and entering each blood force per unit area and bosom rate measuring, the group ‘s information was consolidated. Using all of the collected information, I averaged the blood force per unit areas and bosom rates, computed the p-values utilizing several of the informations sets coupled with the last measurings ( after 12 proceedingss ) by running six t-tests, and found the scopes of overall blood force per unit area and bosom rate. Consequence This experiment was conducted to mensurate the correlativity between hydration and blood force per unit area and bosom rate. I compared six informations sets with the 12 minute station informations set by making paired t-tests ( table 5 ) , and found that three of them had a p-value of less than 0.05. This suggests that the variable alteration between the compared information sets has a less than five percent chance of happening by opportunity. The information sets that had important p-values were the radical pulse rate ( 3 ) , radical systolic blood force per unit area ( 3 ) , and diastolic blood force per unit area at clip 0. One information set, systolic blood force per unit area at clip 0, had a p-value of 0.06974 which is really close to significance but can non be considered as solid grounds. The other two informations sets, basal diastolic blood force per unit area ( 3 ) and pulse rate at clip 0, had really high p-values ( 0.407448 and 0.799202 ) and can non be used as support . The norms for systolic blood force per unit area, diastolic blood force per unit area, and bosom rate were calculated and plotted on three different charts in comparing to clip ( 0 to 12 proceedingss ) . Each of the charts illustrates similar inclinations. Get downing at a maximal value, there is an initial lessening from clip zero to six proceedingss ( values at lower limit ) . Then there is a little addition from six to nine proceedingss, and eventually, a little lessening at the terminal of the 12 proceedingss. In the instance of secret plan 3, the bosom rate mean remains changeless after six proceedingss. Harmonizing to table 4, the scopes for all pulse rates and all blood force per unit areas were calculated as 69 and 75/65, severally. Three separate tabular arraies ( 1-3 ) represent basal pulse rate and blood force per unit area norms, post-drinking pulsation rate norms ( at 12 proceedingss ) , and post-drinking blood force per unit area norms. Time ( min ) 0 3 6 9 12 Mean 71.69 70.12 69.44 70.56 70.56 Time ( min ) 0 3 6 9 12 Mean 120/79 114/70 110/66 117/77 114/72 Data Sets Overall PR Overall BP Scope 69 75/65 Basal Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure Averages Table 1 Table 3 Table 5 Post-Drinking Pulse Rate Averages Table 2 Post-Drinking Blood Pressure Averages T-test Consequences ( All paired with 12 min post informations ) Scopes for Pulse Rates and Blood Pressures Data Sets Basal PR 3 Basal Systolic BP 3 Basal Diastolic BP 3 Time 0 PR Time 0 Systolic BP Time 0 Diastolic BP p-values 0.00079 0.04239 0.407448 0.799202 0.06974 0.04954 Table 4 Data Sets Basal Pulse Rate 1 Basal PR 2 Basal PR 3 Basal Blood Pressure 1 Basal BP 2 Basal BP3 Mean 77.07692 79.23077 77.7307 112/70 110/70 107/69 Time ( min ) 0 3 6 9 12 Systolic 120 114 110 117 114 Time ( min ) 0 3 6 9 12 Diastolic 79 70 66 77 72 Time ( min ) 0 3 6 9 12 Heart Rate 71.69 70.115 69.44 70.56 70.56 Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3 Discussion My hypothesis for this experiment was that increased desiccation in an person would demo increased blood force per unit areas and bosom rates. I predicted to see a dramatic lessening in these measurings from our basal readings ( dehydrated province ) to the 12 proceedingss after full hydration. After carry oning the experiment and running these t-tests with the collected information, there is important grounds to back up my hypothesis and suggest that hydration is negatively correlated with blood force per unit area and bosom rate. The value of 0.00079 agencies that the consequences of radical bosom rate ( 3 ) measurings correlate with hydration, and the chance of the diminishing tendency happening by opportunity was merely.079 % . Basal systolic blood force per unit area ( 3 ) had a p-value of.04239, and diastolic blood force per unit area at zero proceedingss had a p-value of.04954. The chances that those two occurred by opportunity were both under 5 % . This suggests that those measurings exceptionally declined as a consequence of increased hydration, which provides important grounds to back up my hypothesis. The graphs that depict blood force per unit area versus clip show that, from clip 0 to clip 12, blood force per unit area decreases from a high scope back down to a normal scope. Heart rate and blood force per unit area are, by and large, straight related, therefore my hypothesis should hold been reflected through the t-test computations of all blood force per unit area and bosom rate measurings. The three high p-values that contradict the remainder of the consequences could hold been due to input mistakes on the computing machine ; besides, some informations came up clean upon having the excel spreadsheet, hence some variables were non accounted for. Using the basal measurements we gathered from two hours before get downing this experiment likely skewed the consequences, for these Numberss could non accurately reflect what our force per unit areas and rates were at our most dehydrated province of the experiment ( right before imbibing ) . Another survey has been done to prove hydration and blood force per unit area, and the consequences show that hydration is straight related to lower resting blood force per unit area ( Patterson and Spinks 2002 ) . This survey ‘s t-test values were exhaustively important plenty to reason that the relationship between blood force per unit area and hydration is strongly, negatively correlated with one another ; as hydration increased, blood force per unit area decreased. The most of the consequences of our experiment do hold with this survey, chiefly with the significance of the low p-values and overall decision that hydration and blood force per unit area are negatively correlated. One failing in the process that I found to be a beginning of inaccuracy was the usage of basal measurings that we took at a more hydrous province than when we really started the experiment. To genuinely compare blood force per unit area and bosom rates before and after imbibing, we should hold re-measured basal rates under the most dehydrated province possible, right before we began to imbibe. Another possible failing in process was maintaining the volume of H2O invariable for every pupil. We do non cognize how much every one drank, precisely, hence consequences could hold been affected by deficient fluid ingestion and eventual rehydration. This experiment has led to the decision that hydration affects blood force per unit area and bosom rate ; from a dehydrated status, blood force per unit area and bosom rate by and large decrease as hydration additions. Literature Cited Castaneda-Bueno M, and Gamba G. Feb 2010. SPAKling insight into blood force per unit area ordinance. EMBO Molecular Medicine. 2 ( 2 ) : 39-41. James, DCS. Hypertension. FAQs.org. [ Internet ] . [ updated 2010 ] . [ cited 1 February 2010 ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.faqs.org/nutrition/Hea-Irr/Hypertension.html. Patterson SM, Spinks DE, and the Society for Psychophysiological Research. 2002. Relationship between hydration sweetening and blood force per unit area: More is better. Psychophysiology. Washington D.C. p 39. Smith GD, Leary S, Ness S, and The ALSPAC Study Team. 2006. Could dehydration in babyhood lead to high blood force per unit area? J Epidemiol Community Health. 60:142-143. Valera B, Dewailly E , and Poirier P. Nov 2009. Environmental Mercury Exposure and Blood Pressure Among Nunavik Inuit Adults. American Heart Association, Inc. 54:981. Weedman D, and Sokoloski ES. 2009. Human Cardiopulmonary Physiology. In: Biology of Organisms: Lab Manual for LIFE103, 5e. Mason, ( OH ) : Cengage Learning. p 173-184. How to cite The Effects Of Hydration Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Sweet Diamond Dust Essay Example For Students

Sweet Diamond Dust Essay Chapter IV focuses on the presence of the Americans in Puerto Rico during the early part of the twentieth century and their subsequent development of the sugarcane industry there. During this time, the United States military occupied Puerto Rico. Due to this occupation, the native islanders were affected in numerous ways and were looked down upon by the Americans. The Americans viewed the natives as incompetent and unable to be trusted. Many new American banks were popping up in Guamani that were reluctant to finance island run mills, but were giving money to the American run mills: A number of powerful banks from the north had recently opened branches in GuamaniThese banks, however, found no difficulty in financing the new sugar corporations that had recently arrived in town, but mistrusted island initiative (26). We will write a custom essay on Sweet Diamond Dust specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The opening and inauguration of the Snow White Mills, the ultramodern refining complex the newcomers (Americans) had been building from months on the valley, (28) was of major significance in this chapter. Don Julio was strong-willed and vowed that he would not sell any of his land and share the same fate as the other local sugar mills. It was rumored that the Americans had declared a cessation of hostilities in the sugar mills war, and were now willing to aid the criollo hacienda workers. This was his opportunity to mingle and discuss his plans with the owners of Snow White Mills. When Don Julio arrived at the fair grounds, he made his way over to Mr. Durham and Mr. Irving, the president of the mills and the president of the sponsoring bank National City Bank, respectively. These two Americans saw the US victory as a major step towards modernizing for the US and for Puerto Rico: Twenty years ago it brought you freedom and order; this times its bringing you our nations progress. Thanks to that army out there your island is being inaugurated today in to the modern age, (32) said Mr. Durham speaking of the army that was present at the festivities. Don Julio was disturbed and offended by this comment. Mr. Irving said that the progress of the new century belongs to Americans and the progress of the past belongs to the Spanish. Yet again, showing how the Americans look down upon the native peoples. He then proposed his deal to the two Americans; he would sell them some of his cane fields, if they would lend him the money to modernize his own mill. The Americans find this to be amusing because Don Julio thinks that the bank invested to wipe out foreign landowners, when they were really investing in a business that has potential to be profitable: This man thinks our bank is Snow Whites business partner! Im afraid youre mistaken my friend. Weve no vested interests whatsoever in the venture, and there no way M. Durham can tell us what to do. And taking Don Julio gently by the arm, he explained that his banks role was not to choose between criollo and foreign landowners, but to loan out money to a solid enterprise, for the good of all, (33) said Mr. Durham. This shows the difference between the two ways of thinking. The Americans are concerned with the business aspects and money. On the other hand, Don Julio is worried about his family business. The day of the inauguration was a big spectacle with a zeppelin, donning the colors of the American flag on its tail on a banner stating April 15, 1918- Follow Our Example, flying in the direction of the new mill. This zeppelin served two purposes. The first being that the banner was showing their feeling of superiority over the native peoples. If the native peoples were to follow the American way, they would be better off. Also, the zeppelin is leading the peoples towards the festivities. This shows that the Americans dont believe that the natives must be lead and are not able of doing things on their own. .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 , .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 .postImageUrl , .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 , .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5:hover , .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5:visited , .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5:active { border:0!important; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5:active , .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5 .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u57f8886cc52e171b81a4e0808361f0b5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Antigone's Tragic Hero EssayIn conclusion, there are many differences that are apparent between the Americans and Puerto Ricans in this chapter. The American occupation and taking over helped to bring out and show these differences. The manner in which the Americans go about dealing with the Puerto Ricans shows their lack of respect. Most of all, Puerto Rican sugar fields took the worst hit.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

China-Japan relations and the views of news organizagions essays

China-Japan relations and the views of news organizagions essays Recently, Anti-Japanese protest has peaked in China due to Japans approval of high school history textbooks that contain significant revision and whitewash of its brutal actions towards China and Korea during WWII. At the same time Japan is trying to win a permanent seat on an expanded United Nations Security Council. China, being a member of the permanent United Nations Security Council, exercises veto against Japans effort. Two news organizations; New York Times and Washington Post, Blogsforbush.com and Chamsarang.com, an anti-war community in Korea have slightly different approaches to the issue. First, I will briefly summarize the history that had led the tension between the three nations in order to give some insight on the origin of anti-Japan movement, then discuss the different approaches that media has on Japans current action on the approval of inadequate textbooks, and Chinas objection and standpoint on Japans effort to win the Security Council. Both China and Korea long accused Japan for not apologizing for brutally invading its neighbor countries and the tension between the countries that still exists today. The Nanjing massacre was perhaps the best remembered and most infamous event in the Japanese invasion of China that killed nearly 300,000 citizens and soldiers. In addition to the huge number of deaths, over the course of weeks following the fall of Nanjing, Japanese troops engaged in an orgy of rape, murder, theft, and arson. Historians estimates that tens of thousands of women from as young as 7 to the elderly were raped. Rapes were often performed in public during the day and often in front of spouses or family members. The rape was systemized in a process where soldiers would search door to door for young girls. Many women were taken captive to be gang raped and some were kept to be raped again. It was common for a woman to be killed immediately after being raped usually by mutilati...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Syria Geography, Facts, and History

Syria Geography, Facts, and History Capital and Major Cities Capital: Damascus, population 1.7 million Major Cities: Aleppo, 4.6 million Homs, 1.7 million Hama, 1.5 million Idleb, 1.4 million al-Hasakeh, 1.4 million Dayr al-Zur, 1.1 million Latakia, 1 million Dara, 1 million Government of Syria The Syrian Arab Republic is nominally a republic, but in actuality, it is ruled by an authoritarian regime headed by President Bashar al-Assad and the Arab Socialist Baath Party. In the 2007 elections, Assad received 97.6% of the vote. From 1963 to 2011, Syria was under a State of Emergency that allowed the president extraordinary powers; although the State of Emergency has officially been lifted today, civil liberties remain curtailed. Along with the president, Syria has two vice presidents - one in charge of domestic policy and the other for foreign policy. The 250-seat legislature or Majlis al-Shaab is elected by popular vote for four-year terms. The president serves as the head of the Supreme Judicial Council in Syria. He also appoints the members of the Supreme Constitutional Court, which oversees elections and rules on the constitutionality of laws. There are secular appeals courts and courts of the first instance, as well as Personal Status Courts that use sharia law to rule on marriage and divorce cases. Languages The official language of Syria is Arabic, a Semitic language. Important minority languages include Kurdish, which is from the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European; Armenian, which is Indo-European on the Greek branch; Aramaic, another Semitic language; and Circassian, a Caucasian language. In addition to these mother tongues, many Syrians can speak French. France was the League of Nations mandatory power in Syria after World War I. English is also growing in popularity as a language of international discourse in Syria. Population The population of Syria is approximately 22.5 million (2012 estimate). Of those, about 90% are Arab, 9% are Kurds, and the remaining 1% is made up of small numbers of Armenians, Circassians, and Turkmens. In addition, there are about 18,000 Israeli settlers occupying the Golan Heights. Syrias population is growing quickly, with annual growth of 2.4%. The average life expectancy for men is 69.8 years, and for women 72.7 years. Religion in Syria Syria has a complex array of religions represented among its citizens. Approximately 74% of Syrians are Sunni Muslims. Another 12% (including the al-Assad family) are Alawis or Alawites, an off-shoot of the Twelver school within Shiism. Approximately 10% are Christians, mostly of the Antiochian Orthodox Church, but also including Armenian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, and Assyrian Church of the East members. Approximately three percent of Syrians are Druze; this unique faith combines Shia beliefs of the Ismaili school with Greek philosophy and Gnosticism. Small numbers of Syrians are Jewish or Yazidist. Yazidism is a syncretic belief system mostly among ethnic Kurds that combines Zoroastrianism and Islamic Sufism. Geography Syria is situated on the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. It has a total area of 185,180 square kilometers (71,500 square miles), divided into fourteen administrative units. Syria shares land borders with Turkey to the north and west, Iraq to the east, Jordan and Israel to the south, and Lebanon to the southwest. Although much of Syria is desert, 28% of its land is arable, thanks in large part to irrigation water from the Euphrates River. The highest point in Syria is Mount Hermon, at 2,814 meters (9,232 feet). The lowest point is near the Sea of Galilee, at -200 meters from the sea (-656 feet). Climate Syrias climate is quite varied, with a relatively humid coast and a desert interior separated by a semiarid zone in between. While the coast averages only about 27 °C (81 °F) in August, temperatures in the desert regularly surpass 45 °C (113 °F). Similarly, rainfall along the Mediterranean averages 750 to 1,000 mm per year (30 to 40 inches), while the desert sees just 250 millimeters (10 inches). Economy Although it has risen into the middle ranks of nations in terms of the economy over recent decades, Syria faces economic uncertainty due to political unrest and international sanctions. It depends on agriculture and oil exports, both of which are declining. Corruption is also an issue.on agriculture and oil exports, both of which are declining. Corruption is also an issue. Approximately 17% of the Syrian workforce is in the agriculture sector, while 16% are in industry and 67% in services. The unemployment rate is 8.1%, and 11.9% of the population live below the poverty line. Syrias per capita GDP in 2011 was about $5,100 US. As of June 2012, 1 US dollar 63.75 Syrian pounds. History of Syria Syria was one of the early centers of Neolithic human culture 12,000 years ago. Important advances in agriculture, such as the development of domestic grain varieties and the taming of livestock, likely took place in the Levant, which includes Syria. By about 3000 BCE, the Syrian city-state of Ebla was the capital of a major Semitic empire that had trade relations with Sumer, Akkad and even Egypt. The invasions of the Sea Peoples interrupted this civilization during the second millennium BCE, however. Syria came under Persian control during the Achaemenid period (550-336 BCE)  and then fell to the Macedonians under Alexander the Great following Persias defeat in the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BCE). Over the next three centuries, Syria would be ruled by the Seleucids, the Romans, the Byzantines, and the Armenians. Finally, in 64 BCE it became a Roman province  and remained so until 636 CE. Syria rose to prominence after the founding of the Muslim Umayyad Empire in 636 CE, which named Damascus as its capital. When the Abbasid Empire displaced the Umayyads in 750, however, the new rulers moved the capital of the Islamic world to Baghdad. The Byzantine (Eastern Roman) sought to regain control over Syria, repeatedly attacking, capturing and then losing major Syrian cities between 960 and 1020 CE. Byzantine aspirations faded when the Seljuk Turks invaded Byzantium in the late 11th century, also conquering parts of Syria itself. At the same time, however, Christian Crusaders from Europe began establishing the small Crusader States along the Syrian coast. They were opposed by anti-Crusader warriors including, among others, the famous Saladin, who was the sultan of Syria and Egypt. Both the Muslims and the Crusaders in Syria faced an existential threat in the 13th century, in the form of the rapidly expanding Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanate Mongols invaded Syria  and met fierce resistance from opponents including the Egyptian Mamluk army, which defeated the Mongols soundly at the Battle of Ayn Jalut in 1260. The foes fought on until 1322, but in the meanwhile, the leaders of the Mongol army in the Middle East converted to Islam and became assimilated into the culture of the area. The Ilkhanate faded out of existence in the mid 14th century, and the Mamluk Sultanate solidified its grip on the area. In 1516, a new power took control of Syria. The Ottoman Empire, based in Turkey, would rule Syria and the rest of the Levant until 1918. Syria became a relatively little-regarded backwater in the vast Ottoman territories. The Ottoman sultan made the mistake of aligning himself with the Germans and Austro-Hungarians in World War I; when they lost the war, the Ottoman Empire, also known as the Sick Man of Europe, fell apart. Under supervision by the new League of Nations, Britain and France divided the former Ottoman lands in the Middle East between themselves. Syria and Lebanon became French mandates. An anti-colonial revolt in 1925 by a unified Syrian populace frightened the French so much that they resorted to brutal tactics to put down the rebellion. In a preview of French policies a few decades later in Vietnam, the French army drove tanks through the cities of Syria, knocking down houses, summarily executing suspected rebels, and even bombing civilians from the air. During World War II, the Free French government declared Syria independent from Vichy France, while reserving the right to veto any bill passed by the new Syrian legislature. The last French troops left Syria in April of 1946, and the country gained a measure of true independence. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, Syrian politics were bloody and chaotic. In 1963, a coup put the Baath Party into power; it remains in control to this day. Hafez al-Assad took over both the party and the country in a 1970 coup  and the presidency passed to his son Bashar al-Assad following Hafez al-Assads death in 2000. The younger Assad was seen as a potential reformer and modernizer, but his regime has proved corrupt and ruthless. Beginning in the spring of 2011, a Syrian Uprising sought to overthrow Assad as part of the Arab Spring movement.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Generating Theory from Practice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Generating Theory from Practice - Essay Example Wherein, Evidence based practice provides high quality patient care by the nurses based on research and knowledge, rather than on the basis of traditions, myths and outdated books among others. . These two practices frame an important part of the nursing theory and further help in the development of prevailing nursing theories. Nursing theory can be defined as â€Å"a logically interrelated set of confirmed hypotheses† (Brown, 1997). Furthermore, it has been discussed that to utilize the nursing theory effectively, it is necessary to derive a better understanding about the description, analysis and the evaluation of the theory. According to the aforesaid discussions, it can be stated that nursing theory must involve care for the patients to build up confidence in them. Furthermore, nurses must be well acquainted with medical ailments to deal with critical situation, whenever necessary. In this stand, these theories if implemented in future, it can assist patient and their fami lies to keep faith upon the medical department and to maintain a cooperative atmosphere for better results. â€Å"Reflective practice can be defined as the process of making sense of events, situations and actions that occur in the workplace† (Nursing Times Awards, 2013). ... mented to strengthen the shared thinking and can also be applied for the purpose of bringing alignment between various healthcare activities (Amulya, 2011). In case of Evidence-based practice, it inculcates, qualitative project, which mainly contributes to the other research initiatives. This paper intends to evaluate efficiencies of nursing theories. This paper will also critically analyze the Reflective Practice (RP) and the Evidence Based Practice (EBP), which is applied in the development of nursing theories. A proposition is a statement about a concept or the relation between two or more concepts. EBP is a quality assurance activity, which involves low cost and high relevance within medical context. It requires team involvement and collaborative actions (French, 1999). The RP is a dynamic process, which is associated with individuals need for care, which inculcates the emotional and personal feelings of the patients. Thus this assignment intends to evaluate the necessity of RP a nd EBP in the study of nursing. Discussion Nursing is a profession in health sectors which takes care of people to live a healthy and longer life. The ability of nursing to look after the need of the people depends on the way in which the nursing job is managed in health care systems (NHS Careers, 2012). It also depends on the way in which nursing practice is regulated and the quality care is assured. Thus to make the nursing study a clear concept, various practices have been introduced. This assignment mainly focuses on the two types of practices Reflective Practices (RP) and the Evidence Based Practice (EBP), which is required for the effectual development of the nursing theory. ‘Reflection on Practice’ signifies an important skill of the nurses. Nurses getting engage within the